Effective elimination relies on understanding the feeding and social behavior of the ants that have invaded. As examples: if a bait is placed in an area where the they don’t travel, or it consists of a food ingredient to which it is not attracted, the bait will do little except collect dust. If inspection is conducted outdoors for the colony of an indoor-nesting ant, the time will be spent in vain. If only a single colony of a multi-nest ant is found and treated, the infestation is unlikely to be eliminated.
Even within a species, complexities can arise. For example, the pavement ant often will nest under sidewalks and driveways in temperate weather — then move indoors during the winter, nesting under the foundation or near a heat source. They also can have seasonal variations in food preferences, with many foraging for proteins in the spring as they work to build up the colony, then preferring more sugar/carbohydrates in the summer and fall.